Watermark Conference-2017: To know the tendencies of tomorrow26 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2017 ãîäà
According to a tradition formed in 12 years, once every two years one of the Russian cities welcomes the guests of Watermark Conference; among them, there are leading specialists of the security product field, national banks and public services as well as experts in the security field from all over the world. This year, Yekaterinburg was chosen to be the venue of the forum – it was there that the 7th International Conference on Security Technologies and Solutions – Watermark Conference-2017 was held on July 4-6, 2017. “INTERCRIM-PRESS” Publishing House as a long-time media partner gives inclusive informational support to the forum; we have tried to present its brightest moments to our readers.
“WaterMark” Publishing House is the event organizer; Goznak has been the General Sponsor during all the 12 years; such “whales” of the industry as Komori Currency Solutions (Japan) in partnership with Yam International (Russia), KBA NotaSys (Switzerland) and SICPA (Switzerland) were Honorary Sponsors. A number of Russian companies also rendered sponsoring support to the conference – “NPO “Krypten” and “HoloGrate”, the largest domestic manufacturers of holograms, “MK-SP” Foreign Trade Association, “OSTCARD”, a supplier of plastic card production equipment.
Valery Presnyakov, General Director of “WaterMark”, noted that in recent years, there have been serious changes in the security production field that were reflected both in the program of the present conference and even in its title (it used to be called a conference on security printing – editor’s note). In fact, topics of the reports have been broadened considerably; this time, it included not only topics connected with security printing but also new security directions – safety of electronic documents, ID informational security technologies, product authentication in the track&trace system, digital anti-counterfeiting means on the block chain basis, brand new technologies for studying questionable documents etc. This year, the majority of presentations turned out to be surprisingly bright, interesting and informative. The aim of this review is not to embrace everything; but it is important to pay attention to topics within the framework of the general specifics and theme of the magazine.
According to Arkady Trachuk, General Director of Goznak, the changes that have happened during the last decade can be characterized as fundamental. Although at the end of 2005, there already appeared the first passports with microchips, the work upon implementing the biometric identification was carried out in many other countries of the world simultaneously. Track&trace systems of tracing goods in circulation started developing actively, there appeared new solutions based on both various codes and RFID systems. But all those were solitary examples only entering active discussion in the industry.
The vast majority of documents had physical, i.e. paper basis (train and air tickets, state documents etc.). Besides, cash payments dominated in Russia absolutely. The share of cashless payments at retail comprised 2-3% at best. The situation is completely different today.
Arkady Trachuk said that a few years ago, the specialists of Goznak tried to evaluate how the situation with cashless payments would develop using different models. According to their most optimistic calculation, this share was to reach 40% by 2025. It looks like 30% will be reached this year already. If the situation continues to develop at the same rate, we will reach 40% much earlier than 2025.
The same may be said about the document flow. Today there are practically no paper forms of air tickets, and train tickets at a whole number of destination either.
From Goznak’s point of view, great perspectives open in the directions of ID documents and biometry. Today remote identification is the most important problem in the context of identification for banks and other financial organizations.
The solution that would make a bank feel confident that that very person is on the opposite line of communication with it, will change the landscape of financial services. So far, there are a number of serious limitations that prevent credit organizations from providing a whole set of financial services in case there is no appropriate identification. If one finds a convenient solution, there will appear different financial environment, other financial services and much greater opportunities.
Alexander Yurov, Director of Department of Cash Turnover of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, spoke about the modern realities of the payment landscape and perspectives of the cash turnover.
The present banknotes, according to the speaker, are a product of modern technologies and a reference of a payment instrument for retail transactions. Thus, one of the vectors of development – the technological perfection – has been set; and the minimal social costs serve as a roundup, optimizing criterion.
For the Bank of Russia, it is important that the present cash is also an easily producible product, and cash circulation should be a technological process. The convenience and usage safety of banknotes are a combination of an easily recognizable design, optimal banknote composition and anti-counterfeiting security of the currency units.
For everyday shopping, banknotes with the face values of 100 and 500 roubles are the most demanded among the Russians. The face values of 500 and 1000 roubles are the most demanded for cash withdrawal from bank cards (Il. 1).
Accepting banknotes, the receiver should have opportunities of their reliable authentication even without special technical devices (Il. 2). The choice of security technologies is very broad now. Intaglio printing, security threads, windows, laser marking and other authenticity features. These security features are constantly renewed and supplemented on the new samples of banknotes of the Bank of Russia. First of all on face values where the risk of counterfeiting is higher than others.
However, the banknote printing and security technologies are only one side of the matter. Alexander Yurov believes that one should acknowledge that there is a competition between payment instruments; it exists and intensifies. It makes itself most felt inside the field of cashless payments. It induces payment service operators to act with minimal profit until the market concentrates so much that the remaining players will be able to change the tariff policy to their advantage.
It is known that the unit costs of cash payments are lower than of cashless alternatives. The difference is in the fact that there prevail fixed infrastructure costs in cashless payments. The expenses of cash circulation contain quite a large variable component. Their elasticity in the number of transactions is higher. Serving many retail transactions, cash also draws away the majority of payment operations expenses.
In fact, it is important that the elastic structure of the cash turnover expenses also creates opportunities for their decreasing based on optimization solutions. The main bet in the matter of expenses is an optimal well-adjusted cash cycle. Alexander Yurov pointed out that credit organizations bring cash to the Bank of Russia and request banknotes of the same face values at it simultaneously quite often. It is a general problem of many countries. The reasons may be different. Cash at the bank’s balance is an asset without profit. An aspiration to turn it into a saving means at the correspondent account is natural. The absence of a tuned-up exchange of cash between the banks may also have an impact. The existence of various regulatory requirements may also be a reason. Settlement of the issue may become one of the points of efficiency growth of the payment cycle.
Thus, the formed field landscape determines the necessity of a certain efficiency and security level as well as cost reduction by means of optimization solutions. So, what do participants of the industry of security technologies and solutions close to the banknote manufacturing practice offer?
The fact that Goznak developed a certain banknote solution based on polymer substrate has been known for about a year already – the image of a demonstration banknote briefly appeared in different presentations, but the Russian manufacturer has given no comments so far. A full-scale presentation took place here at Watermark Conference 2017; Alexander Mochalov, a line manager of the Directorate of New Product Development of Goznak, held it.
It turned out to be about not just another – third in the world practice after Guardian by CCL and Safeguard by De La Rue – polymer substrate, but about a unique complex security solution.
It is known that along with the existence of effective public security features, there are special requirements of wear-resistance specified for the low face value banknotes; it is especially challenging for countries with humid and hot climate. The banknote durability is determined by the substrate properties to a great extent. Just three decades ago, paper was the only substrate; however, today a great number of various substrates are offered on the market, though according to the data of 2016 the paper continues to dominate in the market. The reason is that the polymer properties are contradictory for application in the banknote production – its advantages in some of the cases turn out to be disadvantages in others.
The main part of paper banknotes (90-95%) are withdrawn from circulation due to soiling. The well-absorbing porous paper structure contributes to that. Polymer substrate without pores on the surface naturally has very high resistance to soiling. However, due to the same reason, inks printed on the banknote are not absorbed to the surface polymer layers.
The problem is especially important for intaglio inks fixed to the paper surface mainly due to mechanical bonds. The polymer substrate manufacturers have gone a long way having provided the maximal possible level of ink fixing. However, the efficiency of application of polymer substrates remains far from maximal.
Another important property of polymer as against paper are its high mechanical properties (tear resistance, for example). At that, the polymer tough plastic properties are a disadvantage for intaglio printing, because the polymer permanent deformation to compare to paper in the same conditions is much lower.
As a result, we have intaglio printing with a small relief, which is hardly felt tactually (especially on circulation banknotes). That is why we fail to use the security potential of intaglio printing on polymer banknotes (for example, KIPP-effect, elements of the MVC and HMC series).
In Alexander Mochalov’s opinion, there appears a reasonable question because of that – do we need intaglio printing on a plastic banknote at all? Moreover, there are lasting offset and screen UV-curable inks in the market, but intaglio inks of UV polymerization do not exist.
For the application of relief marks, it is possible to use blind, or relief embossing (this technology is applied quite actively in polymer banknotes of the latest generation) or UV-curable screen inks providing good tactile properties.
The security potential of intaglio printing as a special kind of printing possessing unique properties of the second and third levels may be compensated with security offset printing with Orlov’s effect and 2D-Iris effect. In a part of creating high-efficient public elements – with other not less effective visual features.
Summing up the results, the reporter made a conclusion that the loss of intaglio printing on a polymer banknote of a low face value will not bring to decreasing its security; but it will increase its durability considerably providing offset, screen and numbering UV-curable inks are applied together with special methods of offset printing. That conclusion became the basis of creating a new concept of a plastic substrate banknote developed at Goznak.
Thus, the concept includes:
- application of maximally durable plastic substrate;
- usage of traditional printing equipment;
- application of technologies providing the banknote durability increase correlating to the durability of the substrate itself, to compare to the existing plastic and hybrid substrates;
- usage of new security features similar in perception to the traditional ones (like a watermark or security thread) but possessing accessible optically variable properties;
- decreasing the costs of banknote production to compare to other substrates with increased durability;
- a possibility of scaling up to a banknote of a high face value due to the application of high-security holographic images and optically variable inks, SPARK for example.
A promotional banknote (Il. 3) was issued on the basis of this concept. Biaxially oriented transparent polypropylene is the printing basis. The design is traditional – to decrease the effect of shifting to a new substrate, i.e. to reduce the possible rejection of the non-paper substrate by the public. The effective public security features integrated into the banknote serve the same purpose.
In the transparent large area reminding of a watermark, the optically variable security element Frost is placed; it is observed in transmitted light from any side of the banknote (Il. 4). When the banknote is tilted, the image changes from positive to negative.
There are two figured windows imitating thread, in which there are “Zebra” and MSCI optically variable security elements visible in transmitted light on any side of the banknote (Il. 5). When observed in transmitted light, on the element in the bottom (MSCI) there are zones, which change their colour when the banknote is swayed. It is important that the same location of the zones and their colour is provided on all the banknotes. The element design can be of two and three colours. In reflected light, the security element has a homogeneous form. The “Zebra” optically variable coloured security element is made with a contrasting colour. When the banknote is tilted, the image changes from positive to negative. The security element may also have a kinetic effect.
Tactile elements are located in the right-hand part of the back side of the banknote, they are made in the screen method with a UV-curable ink (Il. 6).
Locally laminated holographic foil of hot lamination (in the shape of tree leaves) with a set of hi-tech security effects has (Il. 7):
- Mobile kinetic effect (when the banknote is tilted words «GOZNAK» move in respect to one another);
- 3D effect;
- a marked volume monochrome image of a bug and a dewdrop on a leaf;
- an effect of a covert coloured image: when the banknote is observed at a certain angle, there appears a coloured image of a red ladybug on a green leaf:
The backside of the banknote looks especially interesting and dynamic under the influence of UV light, with 2D Iris element luminescent.
- SmartGlint effect: the image of letter “W” visualized with the help of a spotlight (for example, with a LED lamp of a smartphone), “swimming” across the surface of the holographic image after the movements of the spotlight;
- a machine-readable covert code identified with a special sensor;
- a possibility of security features identification from the back side of the banknote by means of a transparent window.
SPARK optically variable element with a kinetic effect is controlled on both the front and the back side by means of printing on the transparent window (Il. 8).
Besides the public, traditional graphic security elements (microtexts and guilloche) and visualized elements of the cash-office level – IR-absorbing and IR-transparent elements (Il. 9) as well as UV-luminescent elements (Il.10) are applied in the banknote design.
The absence of intaglio printing is compensated with the application of high-tech technologies in offset printing: from Orlov’s effect on the front side to 2D-Iris effect on the backside (Il.11).
The application of Orlov’s effect for printing on polymer substrates is a unique solution protecting the banknote reliably from imitations using other kinds of printing, digital for example.
The background grid protected with 2D-Iris cannot be reproduced with the help of copying devices and standard printing machines, has a smooth transition from one colour to another in all directions without the application of the rasterizing technology. The feature is formed in during the offset printing process and helps to raise the level of banknote security without additional pressruns and costs.
The integration of rather expensive security features – holographic foil and SPARK – into the banknote design has been done in order to demonstrate the opportunities of scaling a banknote of a low face value into a banknote of a high face value.
At the end of his presentation, Alexander Mochalov assured the listeners that Goznak is not going to reject intaglio printing which is considered a truly unique technology. However, it is important to realize that the usage of new substrates also requires the application of new printing technologies, security solutions and approaches.
Barna Barnabas, Deputy Executive Director of Jura JSP (Austria), informed the conference participants about the practical realization of a banknote security feature read with the help of a mobile phone.
The smartphone-readable element was developed not only as a security feature (i.e. able to provide a correct and reliable answer regarding the banknote authenticity), but also as a promotional element aimed at getting the young generation interested in using cash.
We would like to remind that the project of banknote authentication with the help of a smartphone was launched by Jura in 2012 already, and we described it in our magazine more than once. The concept of the element is based on special properties of relief printing.
First of all, solving the task required analyzing real counterfeits, and the National Bank of Hungary helped Jura and provided all kinds of counterfeits detected in the country for analysis (Il. 12). They were analyzed thoroughly and divided into counterfeits of low quality mainly printed using an inkjet printer and high-quality counterfeits (Il. 13) made using offset printing, with reproduced microtexts and quite impressively imitated guilloche elements.
Counterfeits were grouped according to three criteria: colour reproduction, ink density, line structure (because the colour control depends on light conditions, special attention was paid to the two latter criteria). On the basis of this analysis, a banknote sample was created where the smartphone-readable element was made with relief printing in the shape of face value “10”: special line structure was created due to the change of their width, inclination, discontinuity (Il. 14). Then a simple and easy-to-use application analyzing the information from the smartphone camera was developed.
What is the element like? The shape of the element is a part of the design; however, it is identified by the user and represents a special linear structure.
At the banknote projecting stage, an area is chosen where the element will be implemented. The area should have certain identification borders. It is important that no additional technologies or special inks are needed.
Finally, according to Barna Barnabas, the element found a practical application and was implemented into banknotes – during the latest modernization of the Hungarian currency series; 20.000 and 10.000-forint banknotes (Il. 15), 5.000 and 2.000-forint notes have already been issued within its framework, and next year will see the 1.000-forint banknote.
The minimal guaranteed results today are the following:
A few design elements made using relief printing were considered for placing the element. As a result, it was decided to use the image of the coat of arms, which is the same on all the face values and can be read with the help of one application. Moreover, the system detects the face value. There is a contour of the coat of arms in the application, which should be placed against the image on the banknote (Il. 16), then the application takes a picture of it and authenticates the banknote.
|Genuine banknotes||Low-resolution counterfeits||High-resolution counterfeits|
|Identified as genuine||100%||<0,1%||<2%|
|Identified as counterfeits||0%||95%||93%|
The following fact turned out especially important and interesting – the application works offline, but as soon as the user connects to the internet, a huge amount of various data – the reading device ID, reading time and result, number of readings carried out using this smartphone, geolocation data etc. – is immediately transferred to the server of the National Bank. Can this be one of the variants to answer the question, how to use big data with the aim of counterfeiting prevention and investigation of crimes connected with it?!
Today, Barna Barnabas noted, the application has been used for three years already. Before introducing it to the market, the specialists of Jura have tested a great number of counterfeits of three types – copies, inkjet-printed counterfeits and offset-printed counterfeits (there are hardly any relief-printed counterfeits, except for counterfeited US dollars) – with its help.
The application can be installed to smartphones working on the basis of different operating systems and it is supposed to be on demand in the market because it will enable the emitting institutions not only to attract young people to cash authenticating, but also to receive additional information about cash circulation.
Silvan Shosson, Head of Research and Development Department of OreLL Fussli Security Printing, presented a new development of the company – the so-called full-colour UV images.
The security feature for banknotes and documents is called SPECTRAL™; the name is connected with two concepts – “spectrum” as a full-colour image visible in UV light, and “illusive” as an image in the shades of grey observed against the dark background.
The element is integrated into a transparent window. The inks are transparent in the normal light conditions (Il. 17a).
The full-coloured image appears under the influence of UV light (Il. 17b). The difficulty is in the fact that fluorescent inks are not superimposed on one another during the printing process because in this case an effect of glow extinguishing may appear; therefore, special rasterizing using SuperSimultan IV machine is used. If the window is placed against the dark background, there appears an image in the shades of grey because transparent inks diffuse light. (Il. 17 c).
As is known, four colours are used in CMYK color model - Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and black (key) as the additional fourth one.
According to Silvan Shosson, when blue, red and yellow UV-inks are superimposed onto one another, theoretically we should obtain purple, blue, yellow and white colours. However, in reality there will likely be pale purple, green, orange and greyish-white.
Therefore a special printing system helping to avoid ink superimposition and apply them in turn, was developed. This way, very bright full-colour images visualized in UV light, are obtained. Printing is carried out on Super Simultan IV machine by KBA using red, yellow and blue UV inks as well as additional white ink. Super Simultan IV provides high accuracy of the printing parameters from four plates. The inks can be applied on one or both sides, in the latter case it is possible to obtain additional colours due to the fact that inks of different colours are applied on the same area but on different sides.
Silvan Shosson described the special system of the colour palette transformation in detail. Colour positioning is carried out according to the diagonal grid. An example of creating halftones when the size of the “dots” printed in purple is unchanged, and those in blue and yellow grow or diminish, is shown in Il. 18.
What happens on the black and white image? Inks refracting light are applied to the whole surface. The black and white image appears at a certain angle of light against the dark background.
Based on the element, its even more improved version – SPECTRAL PLUS – was developed. Just like in the previous examples, the black and white image is visualized against the dark background, and full-coloured – under the influence of UV light. Only a part of the pattern may be observed against the light background (Il. 19).
The element opens up great opportunities for the banknote designers. A special colour model allowing to foresee the ink behavior in UV light has been developed. The system is not limited with standard green, blue etc. – it is possible to use any colours and make a transformation in order to create a photorealistic image. It is thanks to this technology that we receive high quality of the image with bright effects of fluorescence, Silvan Shosson finished his presentation.
The presented development is interesting because it is a bright example of unconventional application of UV-light controlled images. It is known that the matter that UV security is no longer efficient because it is imitated often and quite believably, has been discussed in the field for a long time already. This is a new challenge to counterfeiters, and they will need time to answer it.
The first hologram on the banknotes appeared in 1988 on Austrian schillings, and by 2000, it had already been applied on 70 face values of different currencies. Its application on the whole first series of euros became a real breakthrough and a large-scale recognition of the feature’s efficiency. In 2006, there were 255, and in 2012 280 face values with holograms. Michael Sidorov from Reconnaissance International/IHMA quoted the data. In his opinion, the hologram, besides anything else, is one of the most popular features among the population (see the Table), almost 50% of respondents know and check it.
The most often checked features on banknotes according to the data of the European Central Bank
The average level of awareness of the population about the security features 2%
However, nowadays, according to Michael Sidorov, the development of diffractive optically variable elements faces certain challenges listed below:
- Science-intensive materials.
- Increase of the number of substrates.
- Substrates with windows.
- Competing security elements. For example, optically variable threads, including colour-shifting, RollingStar micromirror technology, Motion technology. SPARK by SICPA also competes with the holographic technologies. The People’s Bank of China is a good example, it has used holographic security for more than 10 years, but they rejected it in favor of SPARK element during the latest modification of the highest face value.
- Holograms are counterfeited.
- They are considered an outdated technology!
- They are too complicated for the first level.
- Their costs – price pressure in the market.
What has happened in the holographic security elements field during the last five years? It is integration of the security feature into the general banknote design, implementation of windows with holographic elements into the set of security features, development of holograms based on photopolymer (3D holograms).
A bright example of a coordinated design is the latest series of euro banknotes when we see one and the same image (of goddess Europa) in both the watermark and the holographic strip. This is done in order to increase the security, integrate security elements into the general banknote graphic design, facilitate feature recognition by kindling the user’s interest.
Another example is Lousenthal promotional banknote, where the printed image is identical to the holographic image (Il. 20). OVD Kinegram where the holographic image is a part of the printed one has developed the topic (Il. 21). It is naturally more difficult to counterfeit a combined security feature like that than the strip itself.
As for the application of holograms on transparent windows, this technology is growing in popularity lately. In the Canadian polymer series, the holographic element is laminated to a wide transparent window along the whole length; the same concept is applied in the new series of New Zealand (Il. 22). Australia has gone even farther – on the new 5-dollar banknote, the area for the holographic element application has grown bigger, and the holographic strip consists of a few zones with different optic effects (Il. 23). The same approach has been applied on the new 5-pound banknote of the Bank of England (Il. 24).
Quite recently, there appeared a new type of holograms – based on photopolymers. They have already been applied on two face values of the Israeli shekels and two face values of the Swiss francs. Their advantage is in the fact that the image has depth that does not exist on the classic holograms. The manufacturers have worked a lot upon the element, because the thickness of photopolymer was the main problem.
Taking into account the difficulty of the task, it is pleasant to mention that the Russian companies solve it successfully. In particular, NPO “Krypten”, the largest Russian manufacturer of security holograms that will celebrate its 20th anniversary this year. The company’s arsenal contains the hologram for the domestic passport of the citizen of the Russian Federation, Mobile security thread, the iris hologram on the obligatory medical insurance policies, the hologram on the cards of “MIR” national payment system, the first volume hologram on the voluntary medical insurance form etc.
Andrey Smirnov, Head of Holographic Laboratory of NPO “Krypten”, described the recent achievements in the field of security holography and peculiarities of volume phase photopolymer holograms in his presentation. In his opinion, the world tendency for extending the application of volume holograms on banknotes and ID documents will continue to gain momentum in spite of the competition on the part of other elements.
Photopolymer hologram production technology is not much different from the classic production of iris holograms (development of the appearance and elements of the holographic image, creation of the physical object and transparencies, computer modelling and creation of the stage, image matrix origination for mass production). The difference is that in the iris holograms, copies are made with embossing (that is thermal formation of the surface relief reproducing the effects of dynamics and colour-shifting), but in the photopolymer hologram, the hologram is copied in the contactless way, optically.
Il. 25 shows the structure difference of iris and photopolymer holograms. Diffraction grating forming volume images in the volume hologram are spread inside the polymer. The surface is smooth, and it is impossible to copy them by contact (attach and receive a copy). It increases the element’s resistance to copying and replicating.
Today a number of security solutions based upon coloured photopolymer holograms has already been realized – volume holograms have been developed to protect voluntary medical insurance policy forms. The holograms are made with the method of analogous recording from the real object and are noted for high selectivity and depth, full parallax of the image recovery.
A sample of a set of security features is demonstrated in Il. 26. The object with the logo represents a cylinder. If observed at the direct angle, its side edge with “ÑÒÐÀÕÎÂÀÍÈÅ” inscription cannot be seen. But the change of the light source or the viewing angle visualizes it.
An important direction of the company’s activity is security threads. A few kinds of different effects have been developed:
- photopolymer thread with “100 Ð” two-colour image with a “floating” effect of the symbol in relation to the figures (Il. 27);
- photopolymer thread with “100 Ð” two-colour image with a “floating” effect and a shadow effect (Il. 28);
- photopolymer thread with a three-colour image with switch-effect (in colour) – only the background without the images is observed at a certain angle (Il. 29);
- photopolymer thread with “200” two-colour image with a bas-relief effect, a dynamic effect of the speck motion and a shadow effect (Il. 30). The more colours there are in the hologram, the more difficult it is to counterfeit it.
One of the most interesting effects on polymer is an image from an unfocused source (Il. 32) – the so-called phantom image. In dispersed light, the object dissolves into a blur that gives us no sense of the image in front of us. As soon as a focused light source (for example, a smartphone light) is used for highlighting the object, it becomes obvious - it visualizes. If we highlight the object with a coherent light source too, it will become even more distinct. The feature exists in the iris hologram as well, but in a somewhat different shape.
The next effect is multicolour one-parallactic and full-parallactic stereograms. In a one-parallactic stereogram, objects on the image move and/or rotate with the change of the viewing angle from left to right in plane (Il. 34). In a full-parallactic stereogram, objects on the image rotate and/or move with the change of the viewing angle from left to right and from top to bottom biplane (Il. 35).
On Il. 36, the flip-flop effect is realized with the change of the viewing angle from left to right – the main image changes to inscriptions “2018” and “FIFA”. It is quite an effective feature – an unprepared user does not have to think, no matter where he has turned the hologram, the image alteration is observed.
The familiar classic covert image in the iris hologram evolves into a coloured covert image (Il. 33). On a photopolymer hologram, it is possible to create an image unseen with the naked eye but clearly visible with the help of a special device or an optical bench.
In conclusion, A. Smirnov emphasized that the application of photopolymer holograms as means of visual security is a recent global tendency. Rarity of the production technology, equipment expensiveness and unavailability of materials in free sales in the market are an obstruction to counterfeiters. Moreover, visual effects and properties of photopolymer holograms are simple, understandable to ordinary users, and easily discernable from other kinds of security elements.
Following the conference results, one can see that the security technology field is demonstrating rampant development. At the end of the review, I would like to quote Arkady Trachuk, General Director of Goznak, who stated the goals of Watermark Conferences very concisely, “To notice the tendencies of tomorrow at the stage of their birth, understand the reasons, evaluate the opportunities, aftermaths and risks is a task for those who want to keep compatibility and keep pace with the progress”.